|1- Niknezhad, Z., Hassani, L., Norouzi, D., "Investigating actinomycin D binding to G-quadruplex, i-motif and double-stranded DNA in 27-nt segment of c-MYC gene promoter", Materials Science and Engineering: C, 58, 1188-1193, (2016).|
c-MYC DNA is an attractive target for drug design, especially for cancer chemotherapy. Around 90% of c-MYC transcription is controlled by NHE III1, whose 27-nt purine-rich strand has the ability to form G-quadruplex structure. In this investigation, interaction of ActD with 27-nt G-rich strand (G/c-MYC) and its equimolar mixture with the complementary sequence, (GC/c-MYC) as well as related C-rich oligonucleotide (C/c-MYC) was evaluated. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that phenoxazine and lactone rings of ActD come close to the outer G-tetrad nucleotides indicating that ActD binds through end-stacking to the quadruplex DNA. RMSD and RMSF revealed that fluctuation of the quadruplex DNA increases upon interaction with the drug. The results of spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry indicated that ActD most probably binds to the c-MYC quadruplex and duplex DNA via end-stacking and intercalation, respectively and polarity of ActD environment decreases due to the interaction. It was also found that binding of ActD to the GC-rich DNA is stronger than the two other forms of DNA. Circular dichroism results showed that the type of the three forms of DNA structures doesn't change, but their compactness alters due to their interaction with ActD. Finally, it can be concluded that ActD binds differently to double stranded DNA, quadruplex DNA and i-motif.