1- Nematollahi, D., Ghasemi, F., Sharafi-Kolkeshvandi, M., Varmaghani, F., "Insight into the electrochemical oxidation of N,N-dialkyl-p-phenylenediamines in the presence of malononitrile and methyl cyanoacetate. A convergent paired electrochemical method for the synthesis of cyanide and dicyanide derivatives of phenylcarbonimidoy", Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 775, 299-305, (2016).

Abstract:
The electrochemical oxidation of N,N-dialkyl-p-phenylenediamines has been studied in the presence of malononitrile and methyl cyanoacetate as nucleophiles in water/ethanol (80:20, v/v) mixture using some electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronocoulometry and controlled-potential coulometry). Diagnostic criteria of the electrochemical methods in keeping with spectroscopic data of the isolated products revealed that N,N-dialkyl-p-phenylenediamines in the presence of malononitrile and methyl cyanoacetate via a convergent paired electrochemical process are converted to cyanide and dicyanide derivatives of phenylcarbonimidoyl. The present work has led to development of a green and one-pot method for the synthesis of the title compounds.